Divórcio e novo casamento no NT (2): Mateus 5.31,32 e Mateus 19.1-12

Arthur W. ADück

Resumo


No tempo de Jesus o divórcio entre o povo de Deus é autorizado por “qualquer motivo” (baseado na escola de Hillel). Os fariseus perguntam se Jesus concorda com a posição de Hillel, predominante na época. Em Marcos 10 e Lucas 16, Jesus fecha as portas para o divórcio e o novo casamento — não refletem o plano inicial e ideal de Deus para os relacionamentos matrimoniais. O contexto hostil do questionamento pode ter levado Jesus a responder de forma categórica e generalizada. Em Mateus 5 e 19, entretanto, Jesus apresenta a cláusula de exceção, afirmando que o divórcio é inválido “a não ser por causa de infidelidade”. Jesus mostra que a aliança matrimonial pode ser quebrada pela infidelidade e que, neste caso, o divórcio é autorizado, mas não obrigatório. Além disso, no caso de divórcios válidos, o novo casamento é autorizado.

Palavras-chaves: Divórcio e novo casamento (NT). Mateus 5.31,32. Mateus 19.1-12. Cláusula de exceção.

Abstract

In Jesus’ time divorce among God’s people was permitted for “any reason whatsoever” (based on the school of Hillel). The Pharisees ask if Jesus agrees with Hillel, the dominant stance at the time. In Mark 10 and Luke 16 Jesus closes the doors for divorce and remarriage — they are not according to God’s initial plan and do not reflect God’s ideal for marital relationships. The hostile atmosphere in which the question was addressed might have influenced Jesus’ categorical and generic answer. In Matthew 5 and 19, however, Jesus presents the exception clause saying that divorce is invalid “except for sexual immorality”. Jesus shows that the marriage covenant can be broken through sexual immorality and that in such cases, divorce is permitted, though not mandatory. In addition, in the case of a valid divorce, remarriage is permitted.

Keywords: Divorce and remarriage (NT). Matthew 5.31,32. Matthew 19.1-12. Exception clause.


Texto completo:

EPUB PDF HTML

Referências


ADAMS, Jay E. Casamento, divórcio e novo casamento na Bíblia. São Paulo: PES, 2012.

ALLISON, Dale C. Divorce, celibacy and Joseph (Matthew 1:18-25 and 19:1-12). Journal for the Study of the New Testament, n. 49, p. 3-10, mar. 1993.

ATKINSON, David J. Divórcio. In: ELWELL, Walter A. (org.). Enciclopédia histórico-teológica da igreja cristã. São Paulo: Vida Nova, 1990, v. 1, p. 481-486.

________. Novo casamento. In: ELWELL, Walter A. (org.). Enciclopédia histórico-teológica da igreja cristã. São Paulo: Vida Nova, 1990, v. 3, p. 31-33.

________. Separação conjugal. In: ELWELL, Walter A. (org.). Enciclopédia histórico-teológica da igreja cristã. São Paulo: Vida Nova, 1990, v. 3, p. 385-386.

BAUER, Walter; ARNDT, William F; GINGRICH, F. Wilbur; DANKER,

Frederick W. (BAGD) A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979.

BERGER, Klaus. Hartherzigkeit und Gottes Gesetz: die Vorgeschichte des antijüdischen Vorwurfs in Mc 10:5. Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der älteren Kirche, v. 61, n. 1-2, p. 1-47, 1970.

BLOMBERG, Craig L. Marriage, divorce, remarriage, and celibacy: An exegesis of Matthew 19:3-12. Trinity Journal, v.11, p. 161-196, 1990.

________. Jesus e os Evangelhos: uma introdução ao estudo dos 4 Evangelhos. São Paulo: Vida Nova, 2009.

________. Mateus. In: BEALE, G. K.; CARSON, D. A. (orgs.). Comentário do uso do Antigo Testamento no Novo Testamento. São Paulo: Vida Nova, 2014, p. 1-138.

BOCK, Darrell L. Luke. Baker Exegetical Commentary of the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1994a, 1996. 2 v.

________. Luke. The IVP New Testament Commentary. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1994b.

________. Jesus segundo as Escrituras. São Paulo: Shedd, 2006.

BROMILEY, Geoffrey W. Divorce (Historical survey). In: ________ (org.). The international standard Bible encyclopedia. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1989, v. 1, p. 978-979.

BRUG, John F. Exegetical brief: The betrothal explanation of pορνεία in the exception clause. Wisconsin Lutheran Quarterly v. 105, n. 4, p. Fall. 2008. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 27/11/2017.

CALLISON, Walter. O divórcio, a lei e Jesus. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 09/03/2006.

CARON, Gerard. Did Jesus allow divorce (Matt 5.31-32). AFER, v. 24, n. 5, p. 309-316, out. 1982.

CARSON, D. A. The Sermon on the Mount: an Evangelical exposition of Matthew 5-7. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1982.

________. Matthew. The Expositor's Bible Commentary. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1995. 2 v.

CARTER, Warren. O Evangelho de São Mateus: comentário sociopolítico e religioso a partir das margens. Grande Comentário Bíblico. São Paulo: Paulus, 2000.

CATCHPOLE, D. R. The Synoptic divorce material as a traditio-historical problem. Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester, v. 57, p. 92-127, 1975.

CHIA, Roland. Marriage, divorce and remarriage: An exegetical and theological inquiry. Church & Society, v. 5, n. 3, p. 113-140, 2002.

COINER, Harry G. Those “divorce and remarriage” passages (Matt. 5:32; 19:9; 1 Cor. 7:10-16) with brief reference to the Mark and Luke passages. Concordia Theological Monthly, v. 39, n. 6, p. 367-384, jun. 1968.

COLLIER, Gary C. Rethinking Jesus on divorce. Restoration Quarterly, v. 37, n. 2, p. 80-96, 1995.

CORNES, Andrew. Divorce & remarriage. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993.

CRANFIELD, C. E. B. Mark. Cambridge: CUP, 1959.

CROSS, F. L.; LIVINGSTONE, E. A. (orgs.). Dictionary of the Christian church. 3a.ed. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1997, p. 493.

CROUZEL, Henri. Divorce and remarriage in the Early Church: some reflections on historical methodology. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 03/10/2016.

DAVIES, W.; ALLISON, D. Matthew. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 2004. 3 v.

DÜCK, Arthur W. Divórcio e novo casamento no Antigo Testamento (1): uma análise de Deuteronômio 24.1-4. Revista Batista Pioneira, v. 6, n. 1, p. 13-52, jun. 2017a.

________. Divórcio e novo casamento no Antigo Testamento (2): uma análise dos outros textos relevantes. Via Teológica, v. 18, n. 35, p. 137-182, jun. 2017b.

________. Divórcio e novo casamento no Novo Testamento (1): período intertestamentário, Marcos 10.2-12 e Lucas 16.18. Revista Batista Pioneira, v. 7, n. 1, p. 11-66, jun. 2018.

DUTY, Guy. Divórcio e novo casamento. Venda Nova: Betânia, 1979.

ELLEDGE, C. D. “From the beginning it was not so ...”: Jesus, divorce and remarriage in the light of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Perspectives in Religious Studies v. 37, n. 4, p. 371-389, Winter. 2010.

ELLIS, Wesley G. A Scriptural viewpoint on divorce. The Theological Educator, v. 38, p. 33-40, Fall, 1988.

EVANS, Craig A. Mark 8.27—16.20. Word Biblical Commentary. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2001.

EWERT, David. How to understand the Bible. Scottdale: Herald, 2000.

FARLEY, G. E. Divórcio. In: TENNEY, Merrill C. (org.). Enciclopédia da Bíblia Cultura Cristã. São Paulo: Cultura Cristã, 2008, v. 2, p. 198-200.

FEE, Gordon D.; STUART, Douglas. Entendes o que lês? São Paulo: Vida Nova, 2000.

FIELD, David. Talking points: The divorce debate – where are we now? Themelios, v. 8, n. 3, p. 26-31, abr. 1983.

FITZMYER, Joseph A. Matthean divorce texts and some new Palestinian evidence. Theological Studies, v. 37, n. 2, p. 197-226, jun. 1976.

________. Luke. Anchor Bible. New York: Doubleday, 1985. 2 v.

FLEMING, Thomas V. Christ and divorce. Theological Studies, v. 24, n. 1, p. 106-120, mar. 1963.

FOSTER, Paul. Community, law and mission in Matthew’s Gospel. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2004.

FRANCE, R. T. Mateus. In: CARSON, D. A.; FRANCE, R. T.; MOTYER, J. A., WENHAM, G. J. (orgs.). Comentário bíblico Vida Nova. São Paulo: Vida Nova, 2015, p. 1358-1421.

________. The Gospel of Mark. A Commentary on the Greek Text. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2002.

________. The Gospel of Matthew. The New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2007 (Kindle edition).

GAGNON, Robert A. G. Divorce and remarriage-after-divorce in Jesus and Paul: a response to David Instone-Brewer. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 03/10/2016.

GARDNER, Richard B. Matthew. Believers Church Bible Commentary. Scottdale: Herald, 1991.

GREENBERG, Blue. Marriage in Jewish tradition. Journal of Ecumenical Studies, v. 22, n. 1, p. 3-20, Winter. 1985.

GRUNDMANN, Walter. Das Evangelium nach Matthäus. Theologischer Handkommentar zum Neuen Testament. 2. ed. Berlin: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 1971.

GUELICH, Robert. The Sermon on the Mount: a foundation for understanding. Dallas: Word, 1982.

GUENTHER, Allen R. The exception phrases: except porneia, including

porneia or excluding porneia? (Matthew 5:5; 19:9). Tyndale Bulletin, v. 53, n. 1, p. 83-96, 2002.

HAGNER, Donald A. Matthew. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1993, 1995. 2 v.

HARRIS, Murray J. Handout on divorce and remarriage. Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, 1995.

HARRISON, R, K. Polygamy. In: BROMILEY, Geoffrey W. (org.). The international standard Bible.

HETH, William A. Another view of the Erasmian view of divorce and remarriage. Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, v. 25, n. 3, p. 263-272, set. 1982.

________. The meaning of divorce in Matthew 19:3-9. Churchman, v. 98, n. 2, p. 136-152, 1984.

________. The changing basis for permitting remarriage after divorce for adultery: The influence of R. H. Charles Trinity Journal, v. 11, p. 143-159, 1990.

________. Divorce and remarriage: The search for an evangelical hermeneutic. Trinity Journal, v. 16, p. 63-100, 1995.

________. Divorce and remarriage for two reasons. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 03/10/2016.

________. Jesus on divorce: how my mind has changed. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 03/10/2016.

HETH, William A.; WENHAM, Gordon J. Jesus and divorce: The problem with the evangelical consensus. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1985.

HOLMES, Michael W. The text of the Matthean divorce passages: a comment on the appeal to harmonization in textual decisions. Journal of Biblical Literature, v. 109, n. 4, p. 651-664, Winter, 1990.

HOLWERDA, David E. Jesus on divorce: An assessment of a new proposal. Calvin Theological Journal, v. 22, n. 1, p. 114-120, abr. 1987.

INSTONE-BREWER, David. Three weddings and a divorce: God´s covenant with Israel, Judah, and the Church. Tyndale Bulletin, v. 47, n. 1, p. 1-25, maio. 1996.

________. Divorce and remarriage in the Bible: The social and literary context. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2002.

________. Biblical divorce and re-marriage. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 20/04/2005.

________. What God has joined: What does the Bible really teach about divorce? Christianity Today, v. 51, n. 10, p. 26-29, out. 2007.

________. Divorce and remarriage in the church: the social and literary context. Milton Keynes: Paternoster, 2011. Edição Kindle.

JANZEN, David. The meaning of porneia in Matthew 5.32 and 19.9. An approach from the study of the ancient Near Eastern culture. Journal for the Study of the New Testament, v. 80, p. 66-80, 2000.

JENSEN, Joseph. Does porneia mean fornication? A critique of Bruce Malina. Novum Testamentum, v. 20, n. 3, p. 161-184, jul. 1978.

JONES, David W. The betrothal view of divorce and remarriage. Bibliotheca Sacra, v. 165, n. 657, p. 68-85, jan.-mar. 2008.

KEENER, Craig S. ...And marries another: Divorce and remarriage in the teaching of the New Testament. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1991.

________. The IVP Bible background commentary (New Testament). Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1993.

________. Matthew. The IVP New Testament Commentary Series. Downers Grove: InterVaristy, 1997b.

________. A commentary on the Gospel of Matthew. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999.

________. Comentário histórico-cultural da Bíblia: Novo Testamento. São Paulo; Vida Nova, 2017.

KELLY, Kevin T. Divorce. In: HASTINGS, Adrian; MASON, Alistair; PYPER, Hugh (orgs.). The Oxford companion to Christian thought. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000, p. 172-173.

KILLGALEN, John. To what are the Matthean exception-texts (5,32 and 19,9) an exception? Biblica, v. 61, n. 1, p. 102-105, 1980.

________. The purpose of Luke’s divorce text (16,18). Biblica, v. 76, n. 2, p. 229-238, 1995.

KISSINGER, Warren S. The Sermon on the Mount: a history of interpretation and bibliography. ATLA Bibliography Series, no. 3. Metuchen: Scarecrow, 1975.

KÖSTENBERGER, Andreas J.; JONES, David W. Deus, casamento e família. São Paulo: Vida Nova, 2004.

________.; ________. God, marriage, and family. Rebuilding the biblical foundation. 2. ed. Wheaton: Crossway, 2010.

KULIKOVSKY, Andrew S. Divorce and remarriage: another look at the Matthean “exception” clauses. Disponível em:

. Acesso em: 03/10/2016.

LANE, W. Mark. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1974.

LAPIDE, Pinchas. Die Bergpredigt — Utopie oder Programm? 7a. ed. Mainz: Matthias-Grünewald, 1990.

LEHMANN, Manfred R. Gen 2:24 as the basis for divorce in Halakhah and New Testament. Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, v. 72, n. 3, p. 263-267, 1960.

LEINEWEBER, Philip R. The Greek word porneia in the Matthean exception clauses. Senior Thesis for graduation in the Honors Program Liberty University (Fall 2008). Disponível em: . Acesso em: 14/10/2017.

LLOYD-JONES, Martyn. Estudos no Sermão do Monte. São Paulo: Fiel, 1989.

LONG, Timothy M. S. Mark 10:1-12 and marriage, divorce, and remarriage in South Africa today. Neotestamentica, v. 36, n. 1-2, p. 1-19, 2002.

LOPES, Hernandes Dias. Casamento, divórcio e novo casamento. São Paulo: Hagnos, 2005.

LUNDBOM, Jack. What about divorce. The Covenant Quarterly, v. 36, n. 4, p. 21-27, nov. 1978.

MAHONEY, F. J. Matthew 19.3-12 and celibacy: A redactional and form critical study. Journal for the Study of the New Testament, v. 2, p. 42-60, 1979.

MAIER, Gerhard. Matthäus-Evangelium. Edition C-Bibel-Kommentar zum Neuen Testament. Neuhausen: Hännsler, 1983, 1995a. 2 vols.

MALINA, Bruce J. Does porneia mean fornication? Novum Testamentum, v. 14, n. 1, p. 10-17, jan. 1972.

MARSHALL, I. Howard. Commentary of Luke. New International Greek Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1978.

________. Divórcio. In: BROWN, Colin (org.). Novo dicionário internacional de teologia do Novo Testamento. São Paulo: Vida Nova, 1989, v. 1, p. 673-675.

________. Lucas. In: CARSON, D. A.; FRANCE, R. T.; MOTYER, J. A.,

WENHAM, G. J. (orgs.). Comentário bíblico Vida Nova. São Paulo: Vida Nova, 2015, p. 1472-1535.

McKEATING, Henry. Sanctions against adultery in ancient Israelite society, with some reflections on methodology in the study of Old Testament ethics. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, v. 4, n. 11, p. 57-72, abr. 1979.

McKNIGHT, Scot. Sermon on the Mount. The Story of God Bible Commentary. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2013.

METZGER, Bruce M. A textual commentary on the Greek New Testament. 2. ed. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1994.

MISHNAH GITTIN. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 31/01/2018.

MOLONEY, Francis J. Matthew 19:3-12 and celibacy: a redactional and form critical study. Journal for the Study of the New Testament, v. 2, p. 42-60, jan. 1979.

MOO, Douglas J. Jesus and the authority of the Mosaic Law. Journal for the Study of the New Testament, v. 20, p. 3-49, fev. 1984.

________. Law. In: GREEN, Joel B.; MCKNIGHT, Scot; MARSHALL, I. Howard (orgs.). Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1992, p. 450-461.

MUELLER, Ekkehardt. Jesus and divorce and remarriage in Matthew 19. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 03/10/2016.

MURRAY, John. Divorce. The Westminster Theological Journal, v. 9, n. 1, p. 31-46, nov. 1946.

________. Divorce (second article). The Westminster Theological Journal, v. 9, n. 2, p. 181-197, maio, 1947a.

________. Divorce (third article). The Westminster Theological Journal, v. 10, n. 1, p. 1-22, nov, 1947b.

________. Divorce. Philadelphia: Orthodox Presbyterian Church, 1993.

MYERS, Allen C. (org.). The Eerdmans Bible dictionary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996.

NAUDÉ. Jackie A. Sexual Ordinances. In: VANGEMEREN, Willem A. (org.). New international dictionary of Old Testament theology & exegesis. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1997, v. 4, p. 1198-1211.

NEUFELD, Edmund. Marriage after divorce in early Judaism. Didaskalia, v. 1, n. 1, p. 26-33, nov. 1989.

NEYREY, Jerome H. Honor and shame in the Gospel of Matthew. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1998.

NOLLAND, John. Luke. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1993. 3 v.

________. The Gospel prohibition of divorce: tradition history and meaning. Journal for the Study of the New Testament, v. 58, p. 19-35, jun. 1995.

OSBURN, Carroll D. The present indicative of Matthew 19:9. Restoration Quarterly, 24, n. 4, p. 193-203, 1981.

OWEN, Michael. Divorce and remarriage; biblical and theological perspectives. Colloquium, v. 29, n. 1, p. 37-48, maio. 1997.

OWUSU, Sam. Towards a theology of marriage and polygamy. Direction, v. 36, n. 2, p. 192-

, Fall. 2007.

PAO, David W. Adultery, divorce, and the hard-hearted people of God: the function of the Matthean exception clause (Matt 19:9) in its literary context. Paradosis, v. 1, p. 64-83, 2004.

________; SCHNABEL, Eckhard J. In: BEALE, G. K.; CARSON, D. A. (orgs.). Comentário do uso do Antigo Testamento no Novo Testamento. São Paulo: Vida Nova, 2014, p. 139-520.

PIPER, John. What Jesus demands from the world. Wheaton: Crossway, 2006.

________. Divorce & remarriage: a position paper. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 03/10/2016.

PLEKKER, Robert J. Divórcio à luz da Bíblia. 2.ed. São Paulo: Vida Nova, 2000.

PORTON, Gary G. Haggadah. In: FREEDMAN, Daniel N. (org.). Anchor Bible dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992, v. 3, p. 19-20.

________. Halakah. In: FREEDMAN, Daniel N. (org.). Anchor Bible dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992, v. 3, p. 26-27.

QUESNELL, Quentin. “Made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven” (Mt 19:12). The Catholic Biblical Quarterly, v. 30, n. 3, p. 335-358, jul. 1968.

ROBERTS, Jeremy. Divorce and remarriage: a spectrum of evangelical positions. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 03/10/2016.

SCHMIDT, Peter. cwrew (choreo). In: BROWN, Colin (org.). Novo dicionário internacional de teologia do Novo Testamento. São Paulo: Vida Nova, 1989, v. 3, p. 561-562.

SILVA, Paulo Moreira da. O divórcio e a Bíblia. Mogi das Cruzes: ABECAR, 1983.

SMALL, Dwight H. Remarriage and God's renewing grace. Grand Rapids Baker, 1986.

SNODGRASS, Klyne. Divorce and remarriage. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 03/10/2016.

RYRIE, Charles. Biblical teaching on divorce and remarriage. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 02/10/2016.

SPRINKLE, Joe M. Old Testament perspectives on divorce and remarriage. JETS, v. 40, n. 4, p. 529-550, dez. 1997.

STANTON, Graham N. Sermon on the Mount/Plain. In: GREEN, Joel B.;

MCKNIGHT, Scot; MARSHALL, I. Howard (orgs.). Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1992, p. 735-744.

________. The gospels and Jesus. 2.ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

STEIN, R. H. Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife? JETS, v. 22, n. 2, p. 115-122, jun. 1979.

________. Divorce. In: GREEN, Joel B.; MCKNIGHT, Scot; MARSHALL, I. Howard (orgs.). Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1992, p. 192-199.

________. Problema sinótico. In: REID, Daniel G. (org.). Dicionário teológico do Novo Testamento: compêndio dos mais avançados estudos bíblicos da atualidade. São Paulo: Vida Nova, 2012, p. 1050-1060.

STOTT, John. The biblical teaching on divorce. Churchman, v. 85, p. 165-174, 1971.

________. Decisive issues facing Christians today. Your influence is vital in today’s turbulent world. Grand Rapids: Fleming H. Revell, 1990.

________. Grandes questões sobre sexo. Niterói: Vinde Comunicações, 1993.

________. A mensagem do Sermão do Monte: contracultura cristã. A Bíblia Fala Hoje. São Paulo: ABU, 2001.

STRACK, Hermann L.; BILLERBECK, Paul. Das Evangelium nach Matthãus erläutert aus Talmud und Midrash. 8.ed. München: C. H. Beck’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1982.

STRECKER, Georg. Die Antithesen der Bergpredigt (Mt 5:28 par). Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der älteren Kirche, v. 69, n. 1-2, p. 36-72, 1978.

STUART, Douglas. Malachi. In: MCCOMISKEY, Thomas Edward (Org.). The minor prophets. Grand Rapids:

TAYLOR, Dean. Marriage, divorce and remarriage. Loxahatchee: New Testament Churchsource, 2008.

VAWTER, Bruce Francis. Divorce and the New Testament. The Catholic Biblical Quarterly, v. 39, n. 4, p. 528-542, out. 1977.

VERHEY, Allen. Divorce in the New Testament (1). Reformed Journal, v. 26, n. 5, p. 17-19, maio-jun. 1976.

________. Divorce in the New Testament (2). Reformed Journal, v. 26, n. 6, p. 28-31, jul-ago. 1976.

________. Divorce (NT). In: BROMILEY, Geoffrey W. (org.). The international standard Bible encyclopedia. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1989, v. 1, p. 976-978.

WADE, George Wosung. The subject of divorce in the Gospels. Modern Churchman, v. 2, n. 11, p. 513-517, fev. 1913.

WALL. Robert. Divorce. In: FREEDMAN, Daniel N. (org.). Anchor Bible dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992, v. 2, p. 217-219.

WARDEN, Duane. The words of Jesus on divorce. Restoration Quarterly, v. 39, n. 3, p. 141-153, 1997.

WEIBLING, James M. Reconciling Matthew and Mark on divorce. Trinity Journal, v. 22. n. 2, p. 219-235, Fall, 2001.

WENHAM, Gordon J. Matthew and divorce: an old crux revisited. Journal for the Study of the New Testament, v. 22, p. 95-107, out. 1984.

________. The sintax of Matthew 19:9. Journal for the Study of the New Testament, v. 28, p. 17-23, out. 1986.

________. Marriage and divorce in the Old Testament. Didaskalia, v. 1, n. 1, p. 6-17, nov. 1989.

WIEBE, Phillip H. The New Testament on divorce and remarriage: some logical implications. Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, v. 24, n. 2, p. 131-138, jun. 1981.

________. Jesus’ divorce exception. Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, v. 32, n. 3, p. 327-333, set. 1989.

WILKINS, Michael J. Matthew. In: ARNOLD, Clinton E. (org.). Zondervan illustrated Bible backgrounds commentary. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2002, v. 1, p. 2-203.

YAMAUCHI, Edwin M. Cultural aspects of marriage in the ancient world. Bibliotheca Sacra, v. 135, n. 539, p. 241-252, jul.-set. 1978.


Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.




Licença Creative Commons
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial-SemDerivações 4.0 Internacional.

Indexadores: